Teabag citation and participants

One participant who was a traditional healer explained that in traditional medicine the aim is to use the weakest concentration possible.

However, as the qualitative data was collected within the first few months of discontinuation, it was not possible to ascertain from this analysis why so many women continued to attend their three-monthly follow-up visits after their discontinuation from gel. As has been the experience with most investigational microbicide gels [18] — [26]most of the participants in the IDIs and FGDs said the gel had increased their sexual pleasure and improved their relationships.

A total of 72 field reports, 12 in-depth-interviews and 3 focus groups with women were completed for this analysis. Teabag citation and participants option is that they wanted to continue to access the high standard of care offered by the research clinics.

In fact, 20 participants had only had one follow-up visit by the time of discontinuation, yet 12 of these completed their remaining eleven months of follow-up.

This was driven by a number of factors; firstly the nurses and counsellors were considered the most appropriate staff members to explain the information comprehensively and could take time to address all questions; secondly there was a concern that by providing only partial information at the initial contact, participants may not visit the clinics for more information or may not return with the unused gel applicators; and thirdly the tracking team consisted of only 4 staff members and therefore the workload of contacting all participants was already arduous.

But, of course, investigators are confident enough in experimental results to publish their work, suggesting that individual data points are sufficiently meaningful to contribute to generalizable knowledge. The standard of care package offered to MDP trial participants and their partners was extensively negotiated with the CAB and other relevant stakeholders, as well as being revised with trial participants after enrolment commenced [16][17].

This highlighted the need to hasten and intensify community level messaging and to prioritise areas that were known to have significant concentrations of participants.

Women in the IDIs were aged between 19 and 64 years and were discontinued from gel use between 14th February and 27th March. By incorporating feedback from participants, messages were continuously revised to ensure that information was comprehensible and misconceptions were addressed quickly thereby enabling participants to accept the discontinuation.

The MDP protocol included a substantial social science component and the application of these qualitative techniques during the discontinuation period was critical in informing operational procedures.

On the 8th Februarythe IDMC for the MDP protocol met for the sixth time and reviewed data collected on 7, women available by 15th January across all six sites. Here are two examples: I explained to him that I use this gel not because it would protect us against disease…they investigators do not have proof that the gel protects.

Maximizing pleasure and prevention. The Africa Centre site systematically collected participant responses to this discontinuation. Messages were quickly revised or developed to update the script to avoid the spread of these misconceptions. Methods Clinic and field staff completed field reports using ethnographic participant observation techniques.


The discontinuation raised concerns that they would no longer be able to negotiate condom use with their partners: This is based on the hypotheses that if women had lost trust or faith in the study they were likely to decide to no longer attend the study clinics. Results Participants responded initially with fear that discontinuation was due to harm, followed by acceptance after effective messaging, and finally with disappointment.

Culture Health and Sexuality. The script was presented at meetings and community events, as well as via local press and radio shows. Methods The clinical trial protocol included approval for ethnographic participant observations within the trial.

However, at the end of follow-up each participant had a close-out session which included a full explanation of trial timelines, result scenarios, plans for unblinding participants and disseminating results, as well as plans for post-trial access in the eventuality that the product had been found safe and effective.

Long quotation in translation: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Do I have to present the quotation in both the original language and in translation, or do I present only the original or only a translation?

Whilst these interpretations demonstrate a complex understanding of the scientific issues, they lead to incorrect assumptions that the 0. At enrolment women were randomly assigned to receive 0.

In many circumstances, and on a study-by-study basis, we recommend a peer-review process to assess the risks and benefits of results disclosure with careful attention to laboratory quality. She was so angry you could see that on her face.

A total of 72 field reports were submitted over 16 days from the 14th to 29th February documenting views of trial participants regardless which arm of the study they were randomised to.

Overall women in the other trial arms were relieved that evaluation of 0. However, trials may be prematurely discontinued for a number of reasons. The field reports documented how participants explained this among themselves.

Gel use had also assisted some women in negotiating the use of condoms with their partners. However, some participants expressed concern that community members may assume that the gel had been discontinued due to increased risk of HIV infection, as had been the initial report of the Cellulose Sulphate trial.

The first site commenced enrolment in October Page x Share Cite Suggested Citation: In this paper, I have translated all quotations from French into English. Feedback from participants within the first 2 days of the discontinuation resulted in the MSCC changing the initial contact procedures by the tracking team.A citation or bibliographic is a reference to any book, article, web page, or other published item, with sufficient detail to allow a reader to locate its source used in writing such woks which are alphabetically arranged with.

One group of participants likened the discontinuation of 2% gel and continuation of % gel to having two cups of hot water, both with one teaspoon of sugar: but, one cup with one teabag and the other cup with four teabags.

However, there is no citation per se, for two reasons: because it is unethical to report personally identifying information about participants and because you do not need to cite your own research in the paper in which you are first reporting it. uCEdith,uD Sam said, uChand me a teabag so I can enjoy some tea!uD teabag (Verb) To lower one's testicles into the mouth of another person, or onto the face or head of another person.

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Citation: Gafos M, Mzimela M, Ndlovu H, Mhlongo N, Hoogland Y, et al. () ‘‘One Teabag Is Better than Four’’: Participants Response to the Discontinuation of 2% PRO/5 Microbicide Gel in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

APA Citation Style APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list.

Teabag citation and participants
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