Government plays a central role in technology issues at the national level. Particularly powerful influences on the diffusion of new technological processes and products will be governments, corporations, national security concerns, and the rate of advances in scientific research.
To maximize returns, arrangements such as transnational mergers and shared production agreements are sought to bring together partners with complementary interests and strengths. Since the role of government in setting a national direction for technology is so pervasive, its relationship to the private sector in the Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Mexico, in particular, has become an important production-sharing partner for the United States because of proximity, demographic factors, and the Mexican economic crisis which has resulted in lower wage levels that are competitive with labor costs in the developing countries of Asia and government programs that support production-sharing.
As evidenced by the papers in this volume, these four relationships at the human, institutional, national, and international levels permeate discussions on the globalization of technology.
In fact, the new technologies have brought about important changes in the way work is organized. Rapid technological innovation and the proliferation of transnational organizations are driving the formation of a global economy that sometimes conflicts with nationalistic concerns about maintaining comparative advantage and competitiveness.
Despite their influence in shaping a new pattern of global competition, each has unique problems. To claims that the manufacturing sector is on the decline in an increasingly Page 8 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Less desirable tasks have been taken over by robots; light, flexible technologies allow workers to organize themselves so that they command the technology instead of vice versa; and new materials-handling mechanisms permit the layout of equipment to fit particular work organizations.
Yet, Ramo argues, it is only the government that can perform the regulatory functions necessary for the smooth operation of free enterprise activity that makes use of new technologies. It is the responsibility of developed countries, Colombo concludes, to see that this happens.
Ramo, however, is optimistic about the direction of the two superpowers, predicting that offensive forces will be reduced, thereby lessening interference with the flow of advanced technology and allowing the application of military technologies to peacetime applications in manufacturing, transportation, and services.
This practice contrasts with that of the United States, where advanced technologies are frequently applied to complex products in the defense industry. As a result of this phenomenon, organizations that pursue single objectives may be less suited for survival than those that consider a broader range of issues that optimize the human, organizational, and technological elements.
George Pake describes a number of key advances in software: Robert Malpas noted that it becomes essential for all these players to harness technology for growth; however, this effort is frequently constrained by protectionism, concerns about intellectual property, the demands of international marketing and finance, and, of course, national security.
Cooperation provides access to regional and national trends in technology, thereby benefiting individual nations as well as the international engineering endeavor. Western Europe has the cultural tradition and core of excellent research groups to facilitate its leadership in the technology arena, yet it lacks the cohesion necessary to develop strategic initiatives in important sectors.
It is also the government, he says, that will be the primary obstacle to diffusion of the benefits of technology to world society. For example, gross national product GNP has increased rapidly due to the globalization of industry, and export-driven economies have helped the Pacific Rim nations overcome the disadvantages of scale and the shortage of foreign exchange.
The rapid spread of innovation makes it imperative that firms quickly exploit any competitive advantage. Despite these barriers, Dinneen says, international labs and exchanges of scholars and students in schools of engineering have been effective mechanisms for fostering international cooperation.
The creativity so evident in software technology today is not in danger, Pake says, despite the trend toward greater standardization and the possibility that ossification of the development system could occur in the future. Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: As experts on the costs and benefits of developing technology, engineers are in a key position to contribute to policy formation of these issues.
One of the most influential changes has been the new technologies employed in the automotive sector, including new engineering materials, computer-aided design, robots, and microcomputers.
The rapid rate of innovation and the dynamics of technology flows mean that comparative advantage is short-lived. The challenge for managers lies in organizing production so that they can develop their workers through both technical and leadership training.
This book provides a broad overview of these issues and seeks to shed light on such areas as the changing nature of international competition, influences of new technologies on international trade, and economic and social concerns arising from differences in national cultures and standards of living associated with adoption and use of new technologies.
The focus of the paper then narrows to an examination of the problems and challenges facing the major groupings of Pacific Rim countries: The rate of innovation, the ability to apply advanced technology, the degree of capital investment, use of natural resources, and the existence of technological support services all affect the competitiveness of Latin America in foreign markets.
Among the trends at the international level that can help sustain and improve world growth: Pehr Gyllenhammar makes a complementary point about the importance of management practices in his paper on the manufacturing industry. As Gerald Dinneen points out in his paper on trends in international technological cooperation, international arrangements, whether they be international marketing organizations, joint ventures, or creation of subsidiaries, are necessary if industries are to get a proper return on investment and remain competitive.
From an international perspective, the main issue is to sustain and improve world growth and improve growth per capita. The National Academies Press.
One characteristic of Japanese methodology is that new, advanced technologies are applied in practical and simple ways that can be easily commercialized. Page 2 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Moreover, their increased ability to operate in the global marketplace rein-forces the importance of cooperative agreements to advance innovation.
Page 10 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Despite their diversity and the impediments they have faced in their industrialization, Kolm contends that technology transfer has been less problematic in the Pacific Rim than in other countries of the world, a sign of hope that competition can coexist with cooperation.Globalization of Technology: thereby helping to bring about “Europeanization” in the technology sector.
Papers on three of today’s most crucial technologies—software, materials science, and information technologies—illustrate how the nature of the technologies themselves has created a global environment for research and. Technology Is the Driving Factor for Globalization Essay Words 6 Pages While capitalism is characterized by its relentless expansion, always trying to overcome limits of time and space, it was only in the late twentieth century that the world economy was able to become truly global on the basis of the new infrastructure provided by.
The Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom There are both positive and negative changes in the education genre as far as computer technology is concerned. In this paper, I will give my personal views on both the positive and negative changes, along with quotes of the views of some professionals.
Nov 20, · Essay on Globalization and development. The development ‘in the technology of transportation and communication have reduced the costs of transporting goods, services, and factors of production and of communicating economically useful knowledge and technology’ (Mussa, n.d.: para.
2). The use of best management practices and modern 3/5(3). - In this modern era, the term “globalization” is used, accepted, and treated widely in most parts of the world.
It is a worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration. Globalization Technology Economics Essays] Research Papers words | ( pages) | Preview. - In this modern era, the term “globalization” is used, accepted, and treated widely in most parts of the world.
It is a worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration.Download